The effect of entry restrictions to the center was that the number of vehicles decreased by 15 per cent., And the average speed of the car in a downtown area has increased. Some of the drivers changed to urban transport, and some even gave up driving in this direction. And the mayor of London won the next election. Professor Wojciech Suchorzewski refers to Stockholm, where in 2006. Introduced a fee for entry to the downtown, but soft – only to the test.
After several months, the solution withdrawn. Then there were protests by residents, who demanded the restoration of charges. The city authorities have carried out in this case a referendum in which the majority of voters to reinstate charges. The effect of this arrangement is to reduce the number of vehicles entering the city center as much as 30 percent. In the cities of Dutch rule one third, ie. The target share of shipments in the movement in the whole city was set in equal proportions between car, bicycle and public transport, which is implemented with an iron consequence in life.
City of Dutch and Scandinavian appear in the narrative supporters limits for cars as milk and honey land where pedestrians can go almost anywhere, drivers permeable pedestrians on the strip, there is no green arrow, underpasses and overpasses are being built as a last resort and so on. An example is Copenhagen, which after the construction of a dense network of cycle paths has entered the next level. Now arise here the highway cycle: designed for speed, with a priority road, the minimum number of intersections, traffic lights, sharp bends etc. The first highway – the 18-kilometer stretch of Albertslund to the center of Copenhagen – cyclists started riding in 2012. The project presupposes demarcation further 26 routes that entwine the city.
Countryside Is there somewhere else havens for pedestrians and cyclists? Certainly not in the United States. In many American cities, if you go on foot, the driver stop to see if you need help and myhomework if something bad happened to your car. Certainly not in Dubai, after which it is difficult to move differently than a car (possibly underground piperack). Here the needs of pedestrians do not count, and open the pump at the end of last year, the tram line, which was established along the bike path, you are dressing. Certainly not in the area of post-Soviet Asia, probably not in Africa.
It turns out that most cities in the world is furnished under the dictation of drivers. As a counter example, you can replace the 10-millionth Seoul, where the 2003-2005 one of the routes express Cheonggyecheon turned into a pedestrian zone. As part of the huge project on the revitalization of the center of population of 6 km stretch of road pedestrian decorated surrounded by greenery, light installations and sculptures. Engineers also recreated a river that once flowed through here. The cost was considerable – more than 280 million dollars. Today, it is one of the favorite destinations of locals and tourists visits.
Bold concepts that arouse extreme emotions, the effect of generational changes. In June, the head of the Warsaw Municipal Road Luke stood Puchalski, a former attorney bicycle hall, which has been successfully introduced in Warsaw veturilo (self-service bike rental system of urban operating in Warsaw since 2012.). It’s more or less like the president of the Dalai Lama was a weapons factory. This announcement of a complete change of priorities. Similar changes take effect and will be engaged in other cities of comparison, in 1998. Cyclists in the context of the path was happening had painted on the street. Świętokrzyska in Warsaw, from which began the text. Then was removed by the municipal services, the CRB and then Marek Wos spokesman said: “Warsaw is not the country to ride a bike on it.” Today tangle move that supports trams, WKD, Golden Terraces, Marriott Hotel, is buried underground.
The visitor can learn from Warsaw after prairie dog syndrome – every now and then comes to the surface to see where it is located, and then goes underground again. Cloud computing – safe or not? VMworld2015 During the event, the organizer of the event, VMware Inc. presented innovation in a single platform hybrid cloud. According to the company, the new services in the public cloud and VMware enable customers to create applications faster, increase the level of security of IT systems, rapid disaster restoration services and generate real value added for firmy.Wiele people ask themselves the question, however, whether the use of solutions in the cloud is safe . In principle, the answer depends on whether the company chose for their needs appropriate cloud model. Private cloud allows you to have full control over the resources, the public (in a serious provider) is available immediately, it facilitates settlement costs and ensures a high-quality backup and high availability, which is usually associated with investment and time required to implement a private cloud. It therefore seems curious hybrid cloud model combines the advantages of both solutions.
However, as experts say, each of these solutions in their own way is safe. Representatives of VMware ensure that cloud solutions are safe, but note that many companies in order to fully protect sensitive data or critical to the business, decides to place them in a private cloud. See also: Dell takes over EMC. This is the largest acquisition in the history of IT “Witcher returns. Will soon be the addition of “Heart of Stone” »Poles open to new technologies. For us Brits and Germans »Google shows Accelerated Mobile Pages: For faster, open the mobile Web» In the case of public cloud services and infrastructure are outside the company and it is the biggest objection to the use of this solution. Meanwhile, the data in the private cloud are protected behind a firewall, and the company uses its own IT resources to store them.
Thus the hybrid cloud combines the advantages of both solutions, while eliminating the threat. Subject, however, is not clear, and the cloud computingiem increasingly interested in bodies and personal data protection regulators, for example. Banks that benefit from these solutions. In particular, the most important question is whether our data is not transmitted, for example. USA.Firmy need to demonstrate that these data dziejeNa the beginning it is worth noting that there is no general prohibition, which would prevent the processing of personal data in the cloud.
Important in this is, however, what actions must be taken to keep all the data protection principles, which arise from the Act of 29 August 1997. Data Protection and Regulation of the Minister of Internal Affairs and Administration of 29 April 2004. on personal data processing documentation and technical and organizational conditions which should be fulfilled by devices and computer systems used for data processing osobowych.Poprosiliśmy Inspector General for personal data to comment on this issue: Dr. Edith Bielak-Jomaa, Inspector General source: Press materials can process data in the cloud, but we need to know where to miejsceWskazać it should be noted that the law on protection of personal data requires the data controller to safety, personal data, and the provisions of Chapter 5 lays down the general rules for their protection. In accordance with Article. 36 paragraph. 1 of this Act, the data controller is obliged to implement technical and organizational measures to protect personal data processed appropriate to the risks and category of data being protected, and in particular to protect data against their unauthorized disclosure, takeover by an unauthorized person, processing with the violation of the Act, any change, loss, damage or destruction. Selection of appropriate measures to ensure the optimum processed degree of protection is, however, to recognize specific data controller.
These obligations are not restricted in any way in connection with the chosen business model, which is cloud computing.Z point of view of legislation, the processing of data, in particular personal data in the cloud, it can only occur if the person who transmits the data (user clouds ) will be able to determine which processing centers (ie. where placed) data will be przetwarzane.Część cloud providers ensures users that personal data will be processed only in centers located within the European Union, which is intended to mean that personal data they will be transferred to the so-called. third countries, referred to in the Act on Protection of Personal Data. It would seem, therefore, could have, that there will be a sufficient level of data protection. But, alas, can only seem so. Because the problem extremely difficult to solve, is that the agreement on the processing of data in the cloud should be an agreement entrusting data processing within the meaning of Art. 31 Data Protection Act osobowych.Zgodnie because of this provision, the controller may delegate the processing of data, but they must be complied with the conditions specified in the Act. The agreement must be concluded in writing, the data entrusted to define the scope and purpose of processing.
The entity to which the controller entrusted in this way the processing of personal data, you may use it only in the scope and purpose specified in that agreement. Entrusted for the proper processing of personal data, including their proper protection, corresponds to the controller, which does not exclude the entity that has entered into an agreement for the processing of data in violation of the agreement. Constructing such an agreement with the provider of the cloud can be complicated, among others, for this reason, that it should provide, using what means the data will be protected. So we have to get very accurate information on this subject, and in the case of the classic public cloud – the non-restriction to the territory or to what entity or entities, which are ruled by technical means (servers for data processing) can be very difficult. However, in the case of clouds, in one way or another dedicated to the user – the most possible, but probably much more expensive. Another important difficulty is to provide the administrator of personal data, the user clouds, its powers of control provider (eg. The ability to control its data centers).
The organization of this type of solution, both technically and from a purely business side, it would be not so simple. Another aspect that should pick up in the clouds is the processing of information covered by secrets protected by law (eg. Of classified information), where the “export” to data centers outside the Polish may be legally zabroniony.Jednocześnie inform you that the issue of cloud computing is the subject interest of the Inspector General for Personal Data Protection, which is designed to prepare public institutions “chmuroluba Decalogue” (available under the link http://www.giodo.gov.pl/259/id_art/6271/j/pl). However, it can also be useful for entities outside the sfery.UE no illusions – a threat to consumers wzrastaKwestie cloud computing analyzes, the European Commission, which on 4 November 2010. Adopted a comprehensive strategy for the protection of personal data in the European Union (Communication COM (2010) 609/3). It assumes modernization of the existing at the level of the European Union (EU) legal framework for the protection of personal data and their inclusion in the legislation related to the development of new technologies. It states that “Cloud computing – ie.
Internet-based computing using the software, shared resources and information are on remote servers ( ‘in the cloud’) is a challenge for data protection, because it involves the loss of individuals’ control their potentially sensitive information in a situation where they store this data with programs hosted on someone else’s hardware. A recent study confirmed that both data protection authorities, business associations and consumer organizations are in agreement that increases the threat to privacy and protection of personal data in connection with the Internet “.As The European Commission sees data security in the cloud. We went on this issue to the source. Dr. Paul Litwiński, a member of the group of experts of the European Commission. cloud computing source: Press Materials Companies overseas won przewagęUsługi provided in the model of cloud computing today are of great importance, especially for small and medium-sized enterprises and consumers who massively benefit from such services. Interestingly, a huge competitive advantage in providing these services to non-European provider of cloud computing – it results in large part from other non-European entities approach to the protection of personal data. Same contract for the provision of such services frequently are not at the same time negotiations are concluded by a simple acceptance of rules and often do not protect adequately the client (just a simple test: do we know what will happen to our data held ‘in the cloud’ the service provider goes bankrupt ? and what will be, if you desire to move to another provider – we get our data back?).
This specificity could see European Commission, which has taken the initiative to develop model provisions for contracts for the provision of data services in the cloud, which would on the one hand provide elementary contractual balance, and on the other – to respect European rules on personal data protection. Unfortunately, the work did not show last more dynamic, which is a pity, because the legal environment changes very quickly – just to mention a recent judgment tribunals of Justice with complaints Max Schrems, which eliminated agreement Safe Harbor of the instruments legalizing the transfer of personal data to the US – and this agreement just was often used by cloud service providers in the US as a legal basis for data transmission to USA.Trzeba also remember that, apart from security used by the disbanded cloud, it is important to use proper safety gear. So we asked companies involved in the area of cyber security what they think about storing data in the cloud. Opinions are divided, however. Data security in the cloud. Possible attacks on this type of solution are możliweRadosław Wesolowski Gray WizardBezpieczeństwo of data in the cloud depends on many factors, but correctly configured service from a well-defined policy of access to data and resources is as safe as dedicated hosting. Building solutions based on the public cloud or private, above all, must use encryption – both connections are used to transfer information and the data itself, this approach reduces the risk of a leak of sensitive data in the event of a burglary.
The next important aspect is to establish data access policies and monitoring their compliance. Especially important it seems to be additional security features such as two-component authentication or the use of biometric solutions. Equally important are the training of employees in the event of attack attempts of “social engineering” that is, the aim is to obtain sensitive information by using the user ignorance or credulity because, as statistics show most attacks come from inside the company.